Friday 21 August 2015

Basic Linux Commands

Below are Basic command which may be useful for Physical Design Engineers while working in Linux Environment

mkdir - make directories

Usagemkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORYOptionsCreate the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. -m, mode=MODE  set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask -p, parents  no error if existing, make parent directories as needed -v, verbose  print a message for each created directory -help display this help and exit -version output version information and exit

cd - change directories
Use cd to change directories. Type cd followed by the name of a 
directory to access that directory.Keep in mind that you are always in a directory and can navigate to directories hierarchically above or below.

mv- change the name of a directory
Type mv followed by the current name of a directory and the new name of the directory. Ex: mv testdir newnamedir

pwd - print working directory
will show you the full path to the directory you are currently in. This is very handy to use, especially when performing some of the other commands on this page 
rmdir - Remove an existing directory 

rm -r -Removes directories and files within the directories recursively.

chown - change file owner and group
 permission  Specifies the rights that are being granted. Below is the different rights that you can grant in an alpha  numeric format.filenames  File or directory that you are associating the rights with Permissions 
u - User who owns the file.
g - Group that owns the file.
o - Other.a - All.r - Read the file.
w - Write or edit the file.
x - Execute or run the file as a program.Numeric 
Permissions: CHMOD can also to attributed by using Numeric Permissions:
400 read by owner040 read by group004 read by anybody (other)
200 write by owner020 write by group002 write by anybody100 execute by owner010 execute by group001 execute by anybody

ls - Short listing of directory contents
-a        list hidden files
-d        list the name of the current directory
-F        show directories with a trailing '/'            executable files with a trailing '*'
-g        show group ownership of file in long listing
-i        print the inode number of each file
-l        long listing giving details about files  and directories
-R        list all subdirectories encountered
-t        sort by time modified instead of name          

cp - Copy files
cp  myfile yourfileCopy the files "myfile" to the file "yourfile" in the current working directory. This command will create the file "yourfile" if it doesn't exist. It will normally overwrite it without warning if it exists.cp -i myfile yourfileWith the "-i" option, if the file "yourfile" exists, you will be prompted before it is overwritten.

cp -i /data/myfileCopy the file "/data/myfile" to the current working directory and name it "myfile". Prompt before overwriting the  file.

cp -dpr srcdir destdirCopy all files from the directory "srcdir" to the directory "destdir" preserving links (-poption), file attributes (-p option), and copy recursively (-r option). With these options, a directory and all it contents can be copied to another dir

ln - Creates a symbolic link to a file.
ln -s test symlinkCreates a symbolic link named symlink that points to the file test Typing "ls -i test symlink" will show the two files are different with different inodes. Typing "ls -l test symlink" will show that symlink points to the file test.locate - A fast database driven file locator.

slocate -uThis command builds the slocate database. It will take several minutes to complete this command.This command must be used before searching for files, however cron runs this command periodically  on most systems.locate whereis Lists all files whose names contain the string "whereis". directory.

moreAllows file contents or piped output to be sent to the screen one page at a time

lessOpposite of the more commandcat - Sends file contents to standard output. This is a way to list the contents of short files to the screen. It works well with piping.whereis - Report all known instances of a command

wcPrint byte, word, and line counts

bg jobs Places the current job (or, by using the alternative form, the specified jobs) in the background, suspending its execution so that a new user prompt appears immediately. Use the jobs command to discover the identities of background jobs.

cal month year - Prints a calendar for the specified month of the specified year.

cat files - Prints the contents of the specified files.clear - Clears the terminal screen.

cmp file1 file2 - Compares two files, reporting all discrepancies. Similar to the diff command, though the output format differs.

diff file1 file2 - Compares two files, reporting all discrepancies. Similar to the cmp command, though the output format differs.

dmesg - Prints the messages resulting from the most recent system boot.

fg jobs - Brings the current job (or the specified jobs) to the foreground.file files - Determines and prints a description of the type of each specified file.find path -name pattern -printSearches the specified path for files with names matching the specified pattern (usually enclosed in single quotes) and prints their names. The findcommand has many other arguments and functions; see the online documentation.

finger users - Prints descriptions of the specified users.
free  - Displays the amount of used and free system memory.

ftp hostname Opens an FTP connection to the specified host, allowing files to be transferred. The FTP program provides sub commands for accomplishing file transfers; see the online documentation.head files - Prints the first several lines of each specified file.ispell files - Checks the spelling of the contents of the specified files.

kill - signal process_ids

kill -l Kills the specified processes, sends the specified processes the specified signal (given as a number or name), or prints a list of available signals.killall program

killall - signal program Kills all processes that are instances of the specified program or sends the specified signal to all processes that are instances of the specified program.

mail - Launches a simple mail client that permits sending and receiving email title man section title - Prints the specified man host - Sends an echo request via TCP/IP to the specified host. A response confirms that the host is operational.

reboot - Reboots the system (requires root privileges).

shutdown minutes

shutdown -r minutesShuts down the system after the specified number of minutes elapses (requires root privileges). The -r option causes the system to be rebooted once it has shut down.

sleep time - Causes the command interpreter to pause for the specified number of seconds.

sort files - Sorts the specified files. The command has many useful arguments; see the online documentation.

split file - Splits a file into several smaller files. The command has many arguments; see the online documentation

sync - Completes all pending input/output operations (requires root privileges).

telnet host - Opens a login session on the specified host.

top - Prints a display of system processes that's continually updated until the user presses the q key.trace route host - Uses echo requests to determine and print a network path to the host.

uptime - Prints the system 

uptime.w - Prints the current system users.

wall - Prints a message to each user except those who've disabled message reception. Type Ctrl-D to end the message.


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  2. mv - can use to move file/folder to other dir