Thursday, 20 August 2015

Physical Design Flow

Physical Design Flow








In integrated circuit design, physical design is a step in the standard design cycle which follows after the circuit design. At this step, circuit representations of the components (devices and interconnects) of the design are converted into geometric representations of shapes which, when manufactured in the corresponding layers of materials, will ensure the required functioning of the components. This geometric representation is called integrated circuit layout. This step is usually split into several sub-steps, which include both design and verification and validation of the layout.

Modern day Integrated Circuit (IC) design is split up into Front-end design using HDL's, Verification and Back-end Design or Physical Design. The next step after Physical Design is the Manufacturing process or Fabrication Process that is done in the Wafer Fabrication Houses. Fab-houses fabricate designs onto silicon dies which are then packaged into ICs.
Each of the phases mentioned above have Design Flows associated with them. These Design Flows lay down the process and guide-lines/framework for that phase. Physical Design flow uses the technology libraries that are provided by the fabrication houses. These technology files provide information regarding the type of Silicon wafer used, the standard-cells used, the layout rules, etc.
Technologies are commonly classified according to minimal feature size. Standard sizes, in the order of miniaturization, are 2μm, 1μm , 0.5μm , 0.35μm, 0.25μm, 180nm, 130nm, 90nm, 65nm, 45nm, 28nm, 22nm, 18nm... They may be also classified according to major manufacturing approaches: n-Well process, twin-well process, SOI process, etc.
The main steps in the flow are:

  • Design Netlist (after synthesis)
  • Floor Planning
  • Partitioning
  • Placement
  • Clock-tree Synthesis (CTS)
  • Routing
  • Physical Verification
  • GDS II Generation


These steps are just the basic. There are detailed PD Flows that are used depending on the Tools used and the methodology/technology. Some of the tools/software used in the back-end design are :
  • Cadence (SOC Encounter, VoltageStorm, NanoRoute)
  • Synopsys (Design Compiler, IC Compiler, PrimeTime)
  • Magma (BlastFusion, Talus )
  • Mentor Graphics (Olympus SoC, IC-Station, Calibre)     
 
 
You May also interested  in Below topics 

Scripts used in IC Compiler
Basics of IC Compiler

29 comments:

  1. Thank you for sharing this amazing piece of content. You are doing a great job, thanks for it.
    Sad Shayari for Facebook Whatsapp in Hindi Sad Shayari in Hindi Best Sad Shayari Collection in Hindi

    ReplyDelete
  2. Publication and printing software

    Qoppa Software's high quality software can help you deliver PDF printing and manipulation capability with your printing and publishing solutions. Printing and Preflighting of PDF documents can be performed: by a user with our desktop tool PDF Studio.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Love Sad Shayari in Hindi Sad Shayari Best Shayari Sad

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thanks for Sharing Awesome Content! Telugu Ringtones Download New Mp3 Ringtones

    ReplyDelete
  5. Its always nice and i feel honored reading your Blog . Your Blogs always based on all basic concepts which anyone can understand so easily and relate to Pleasure to read your Blogs Sir.



    golden retriever puppies for sale
    golden retriever puppies for sale near me

    ReplyDelete